A second factor is the import substitution policy, which Russia has been implementing gradually since 2012 and which largely coincides with Russia`s accession to the WTO. WTO membership had raised hopes that trade with Russia would benefit from sustainable liberalization. Instead, Russia has gradually taken many steps to promote domestic products and services over foreign products and to encourage the location of production in Russia by foreign companies. Related measures are often contrary to the spirit and/or letter of WTO rules and are at the root of many trade stimuli. Since Russia`s accession to the WTO in 2012, the EU has submitted four WTO disputes against Russia: b) creating favourable conditions for access to non-proprietary and non-confidential trade information useful for assessing potential counterparties, such as financial reports, profit and loss accounts and foreign trade experience. 2. The parties encourage the adoption of an arbitration procedure to resolve disputes arising from commercial transactions between U.S. nationals and companies and organizations of the Soviet Union. Such an arbitration procedure may be provided for by agreements between these nationals, companies or organisations or by separate written agreements between them.
5. Efforts to exploit trade secrecy must not be hindered or hindered by excessive or discriminatory conditions or conditions that water down the value of trade secrecy. (a) the benefits granted by one of the contracting parties as a result of full membership in a customs union or free trade area; 2. Contracting parties take appropriate measures to encourage the expansion of trade contacts to increase trade. In this context, the Soviet party expects Soviet organizations to increase their orders for goods and services to the United States during the duration of this agreement, while the U.S. party believes that this agreement will result in a strengthening of purchases of goods and services from the Soviet Union by American citizens and companies. To this end, the parties publish this agreement and ensure that it is made available to all interested parties. 3.
Unless agreed by mutual agreement during consultations on another solution, the importer may: (a) impose quantitative import restrictions, tariff measures or other restrictions or measures that it deems appropriate and, during the period it deems necessary to prevent or remedy market disruptions that threaten or are effectively disrupted, and (b) take appropriate measures to ensure that imports from the territory of the other party comply with these quantitative restrictions or other restrictions on market disruption. In this case, the other party is free to depart from its obligations under this agreement with respect to a substantially equivalent trade. 4. Each party encourages and facilitates the holding of commercial events such as fairs, exhibitions, missions and seminars on its territory and on the territory of the other party. Similarly, each party encourages and facilitates the participation of its respective nationals, companies and organizations in these events. Subject to applicable legislation on their territory, the contracting parties agree to authorize the duty-free importation and re-export of all goods for use in such events, provided that these items are not sold or otherwise transferred. Since 1997, the EU`s political and economic relations with Russia have been based on a bilateral Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (APC).